Klay Thompson subscribes. You can too for just 11 cents a day for 11 months + receive a free Warriors Championship book. Sign me up!OAKLAND – As he stood in an arena hallway, Kevin Durant appeared at peace as he talked with Oakland Raiders wide receiver Antonio Brown. That did not mean that Durant was happy.Durant indicated he wanted to speak about his ejection during the Warriors’ eventual 116-102 win over the Denver Nuggets on Tuesday at Oracle Arena. But Durant admitted feeling fearful …
Beefing up R-values and reducing air leaks are the twin rallying cries of builders focusing on energy efficiency. Regardless of the particulars of the house design, more insulation and fewer air leaks make houses more comfortable, more durable, and less expensive to heat and cool.No one seems to argue that point. But Al Cobb wonders which is more significant.“My real goal is to find the tipping point when a leaky building loses more energy via air changes then via the insulated envelope,” he writes in GBA’s Q&A forum. “I’ve had many answers where the losses from air leakage have been as low as 10% or as high as 50%.”Cobb believes home buyers have been “brainwashed” into thinking only about R-values, as energy codes give short shrift to the importance of airtightness. Energy modeling is especially frustrating, he says, because it asks for highly specific information on R-values but only broad generalizations when it comes to airtightness.“Therefore, I’m looking for a study or analysis of homes (real or not) that have been modeled to the extent that heat loss from conductive and air infiltration losses are clearly defined,” Cobb adds. “It only makes sense that as leakage rates increase, the decision to ignore air-sealing can be shown as a critical mistake.” RELATED ARTICLES Other solutions suggestedWhile Riversong suggests there is more of value in the model energy code on air sealing than Cobb or AJ acknowledge, J Chesnut has another idea, providing you’re a math nut. You could, he says, play with heat loss formulas developed by ASHRAE. J Chestnut points to some specifics in a 2005 publication which offer a way of calculating infiltration rates for load calculations.Hunter Dendy adds this idea to the mix: “Maybe the simplest approach would be to model a house and then adjust those variables to see how it changes the performance/heating load of the model,” Dendy writes. “You probably won’t find an across-the-board answer to your question since there are too many variables involved in house design and site conditions. Better to look at it on a project-by-project basis, but after doing this for a while you will get a feel for it.”And in the end, that’s where the discussion seems to put us. Thermal insulation and air sealing are both essential for high-performance houses, but there may be no cut-and-dried answer to Cobb’s original question that fits all circumstances. Some truth to the argumentAs to Cobb’s basic premise that too much attention is focused on R-values, AJ Builder is right on board.“R-value — My biggest pet peeve, especially when discussed here on this supposedly leading source of green building advice site!” he says. “You all love to quote rules and ‘the codes,’ yet two homes can be built with the same approved R-value insulation and have 100% different energy needs. The codes should spec insulation in more regard as to how continuous it is, in how it actually performs at all temperatures, when it is needed most and other aspects of the entire assembly. We all know that fiberglass batts in an attic that is at 0°F is not giving the same true R-value as, say, the R-value of other installs — but where [does] the beloved code address this fact?“The code and discussions here would make much more sense if R-value [measured the R-value of the] actual whole assembly, rated at worst design temperature of stated climate,” AJ suggests. “Otherwise the info is garbage.”That’s exactly what I’m talking about, Cobb says. “The average consumer, building official, and architect is consumed with the perception of the importance of R-value,” says Cobb. “That misperception is the basis of my question that started this thread. If modeling identifies the cost of ignoring good air-sealing, it can be used as a tool that educates all people about building better buildings by using products and systems that perform properly. The suggestion that the code has comprehensive standards is laughable.”Moreover, Cobb bristles at Riversong’s tone: “I’m looking for data to help us build better homes and help the consumer make better choices,” Cobb says. “What I’m not looking for is criticism of my professional capabilities.” Understanding R-ValueHow Tight is Too Tight?Exceeding the Energy CodeVideo Series: Attic Air SealingPodcast: Air Barrier or Vapor Barrier?GBA Encyclopedia: Air BarriersGBA Encyclopedia: Addressing Air LeaksProduct Guide: Air Barrier Components Building Plans for the Thermal Bypass ChecklistNavigating Energy Star’s Thermal Bypass ChecklistOne Air Barrier or Two?Airtight Wall and Roof SheathingBlower Door BasicsPinpointing Leaks With a Fog Machine Q&A: HERS ratings Expert’s opinionHere’s how GBA Technical Director Peter Yost sees it:Mathematically, you can constrain the two equations for convective and conductive heat loss and force them to be equal. And then in some part the relationship will be driven by the geometry of the building and the relationship between surface area and volume. But problems quickly arise:1. Conduction is a field phenomenon and convection is a point effect. In the equations we just sum each effect and yet we know it is the sizes and locations of all the holes that are really important.2. If we set the equations equal to each other, we are assuming that one does not affect the other. And yet we know that where and how the air leakage occurs can erode R-values.3. Many building materials ‘care’ a lot more about convective than they do conductive heat loss because moisture moves with the air and can condense. So, we typically worry a lot more about convective than conductive heat loss in terms of durability.And then there are the occupants. Their concern about the relationship between the two phenomena is complicated as much by the quality as it is the quantity of air exchange. While ASHRAE 62.2 gives us some guidance on how much fresh air — or more exactly, outside air — we should have in terms of occupant health and safety, how much outside air occupants need is a far from settled question and dependent on many more factors than the ones that architects and builders control.There is no question that most folks, lay people and too many in our industry, are “R-centric” and give convective heat transfer short shrift. But a ton of great work has gone in to EPA’s Thermal Bypass Checklist to guide our priorities in cost effectively and practically tackling the big and typical holes. And both in terms of overall energy efficiency and building durability, the continuity of the air or convective barrier is just as important as and even codependent with the continuity of the thermal or conductive barrier. Ain’t no such animalGood luck and God speed, suggests Robert Riversong: “Your question is similar to, ‘What’s the difference between an apple?’,” he writes. “The answer could range from near zero to near 100%, and is entirely dependent on whole-house R-value and whole-house air exchange rate during normal operation (not under blower door testing). If you’re asking about ‘average’ existing housing, there is some data on that. If you’re asking about a particular new construction project, you have to do the heat loss analysis for that specific building including design or actual air exchange losses.”And as Riversong suggests, it might be useful to pin down exactly what we mean when we refer to “the code,” as if there was a single, universal book of rules accepted by building inspectors everywhere.“There is no ‘The Code,’ ” he says. “There are international model codes which are becoming more comprehensive by the year and which each jurisdiction can choose to adopt or modify. And all building codes are minimum standards. You’re free to exceed them as much as you’d like.”That said, there is always the HERS rating system, an approach to quantifying energy efficiency established by the Residential Energy Services Network. Its 0 to 100 scale compares the performance of a tested home to that of a house built to standards of the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code.HERS inspections include both a blower-door test to measure airtightness and a test to measure duct leakage.
A toilet with a 17-inch-high seatWhen choosing a toilet, select one that will use less water. WaterSense labeled toilets use 1.28 gallons per flush or less while still providing equal or superior performance.Select a toilet that is a little taller than the standard toilet which is 15 inches from the floor to the top of the seat. A 17-inch-high toilet seat makes it easier to get on and off, to transfer to and from a wheelchair.Also, install a grab bar on the wall next to the toilet to make transfers safer and easier. The grab bar should be positioned at a height that is convenient for the occupant, generally between 33 inches and 36 inches from the floor. Be sure to reinforce the wall with plywood or wood blocking to secure the grab bar (see Images #4, #5, and #6, below). Consider long-term value when weighing the initial product costWhen comparing prices on products that have green and universal design features compared to those that do not, recognize the benefits to the occupants and the saving in the long run. Universal design features provide more independence, safety, accessibility, and comfort. Green features provide energy and water savings.In view of the benefits over the long haul, the investment in these products becomes an easy choice. Rosemarie Rossetti, Ph.D. works with architects, designers, builders, and consumers that want to create inspired and livable homes (web site: UDDL.com). She is an internationally known speaker, consultant, and author (RosemarieSpeaks.com). Her newest resource, the Universal Design Toolkit, is an illustrated 200-page e-book with online videos and webinars. The concept of universal design has been embraced by architects, interior designers, and other design and building professionals since the 1980s. It is a framework for the design of living and working spaces and products benefiting the widest possible range of people in the widest range of situations without special or separate design. Universal design is human-centered design, accommodating people of all sizes, ages, and abilities. Universal design creates social justice, providing opportunities for more personal activity and mobility.Having lived in the Universal Design Living Laboratory using a wheelchair for the past five years, I have a unique perspective. I have learned the importance of space planning and that small differences in the width of a door, height of a threshold, or slope of a ramp can impact a person’s independence. I have experienced the joy of rolling on hardwood and tile flooring. No longer do I have sore shoulders as I did when rolling on the carpet in my previous home. Safety features like grab bars in the toileting area and shower have kept me from falling, and they make transfers easier. Life is easier when a home includes universal design features and products. RELATED ARTICLES Engineered hardwood flooringWhen the time came to select flooring, we knew that the flooring had to be easy to roll on in a wheelchair or walker. We selected a hickory veneer engineered hardwood flooring with a matt finish to prevent glare. We installed this flooring on a 4 mm. thin acoustic underlay engineered from recycled rubber tires (see Image #2, below). This mat reduces the sound transmission through subfloors and is softer on people’s joints when walking.In a universal design home, there are green options for hardwood flooring. Bamboo is a fast-growing grass and is harder than maple or oak. Eucalyptus is a hard and durable wood that is harder than cherry or walnut.If carpeting is preferred in a home, select one that is easy to roll on in a wheelchair. Choose a carpet with a thin pad underneath and a low pile. One green recycled fiber carpet choice is made of polyester fiber recovered from plastic soda bottles. Wool carpets are also considered green. Incorporating green features and productsWhen my husband and I began the planning process to design our home we wanted to include green features and products in addition to universal design. We were aware that a green home is healthier, conserves natural resources, protects the environment, is more energy-efficient and sustainable. The concept of being sustainable has three components: environmental, economic, and social.In 2009, when my husband and I were reviewing the LEED certification application with the U.S. Green Building Council for our home, we discovered that no points would be earned for the universal design features in our home. I had a discussion with representatives of the USGBC and asked, “How can a home be sustainable if it isn’t accessible?”The USGBC was receptive to my suggestion that points be added to the LEED certification program for universal design features. They hired a consultant who interviewed me and others to create a list of universal design and visitable features that would be added to the next version of the LEED application. Visitable features in a home enable people who use wheelchairs and walkers access into the home through a no-step entrance, a 36-inch-wide entry door, and access to a half bathroom on the first floor.A home that is socially sustainable will serve the family that lives in the home for many years. People will be able to enter the home easily, even if they use wheelchairs and walkers. Universal design features and products improve the occupant’s ability to be independent. When universal design features are incorporated into the home design from the beginning, there is less likelihood that the home will need to be remodeled should the occupants acquire a disability or sustain an injury.As a result of our planning and construction practices, our home earned a Silver LEED rating from the U.S. Green Building Council. It received a Gold rating on the National Green Building Standard certification program through the National Association of Home Builders. Selecting products that support green and universal designWhen we began selecting the construction materials, products, and appliances, we evaluated each of them on the criteria that they be both green and universal design. We read labels looking for the structural components that may offgas volatile organic compounds. We looked for verification that they were energy-efficient, made of sustainable products or recycled materials, and used less water.Here are a few of the products that we selected that are both green and universal design. Universal DesignGreen Building and Aging-in-Place DesignKitchen for a LifetimeVideo: Tile a Barrier-Free BathroomResidential Remodeling and Universal Design Wide doors with lever handlesTo make each room more accessible for people who use wheelchairs or scooters, install 36-inch-wide doors. Also, install lever handles rather that door knobs (see Image #8, below). Lever handles are easier to operate for people with paralysis or arthritis. The cost difference for these wider doors and lever handles is minimal. The benefits are long-lasting, providing for independence and greater access to the entire home.Exterior door thresholds should be ½ inch or lower to be easier to roll over in a wheelchair. The exterior main door should have multiple height peepholes or include glass in the design so that all residents can view the porch to see who is there.Heavily insulated fiberglass exterior doors are a weather-resistant energy-efficient green solution. Select interior doors made from fast-growing wood species like poplar or from lumber certified by a credible third-party certification program like the Sustainable Forestry Initiative. On June 13, 1998, my husband, Mark Leder, and I went for a bicycle ride on a rural wooded trail in Granville, Ohio. After riding for a few minutes, Mark thought he heard a gunshot and slowed down to investigate. As he scanned the scene he saw a large tree falling. He shouted, “Stop!” But the warning was too late. I was crushed by a 7,000-pound tree and paralyzed from the waist down.Coming home from the hospital in a manual wheelchair after my spinal cord injury, I realized how my two-story home intensified my disability. My husband and I knew that we had to sell our home and find something more suitable.In September 2004, we hired an architect to draw the house plans for our new home in Columbus, Ohio. There was a steep learning curve for me in ramping up to build our home. We assembled a team of interior designers and over 200 corporate contributors to assist us. Serving as the general contractors, my husband and I spent 32 months building our home.This home, named the “Universal Design Living Laboratory,” is the top-rated universal design home in North America; earning three national universal design certifications. (Here is the link to take a virtual tour of our home.) Permeable landscape paversWhen selecting landscape pavers, consider those that are compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act. They meet pedestrian slip-resistance standards with a static coefficient of friction of 0.8 and offer smooth travel for people using wheelchairs.Permeable pavers allow for rain and melted snow to percolate through the pavers, making these a green choice (see Image #9, below). In an environment with freezing temperatures, these permeable pavers are a great choice since water doesn’t accumulate and they are less likely to ice over and are therefore safer to walk on. Casement windowsA way to save on heating and cooling bills is to install multiple pane low-e windows filled with argon gas. Some types of low-e coatings significantly block the sun’s ultraviolet rays.Casement windows are preferred to double-hung windows due to their ease of operating, especially for a person who uses a wheelchair (see Image #3, below). These windows allow more air circulation due to the size of the operating sash. The window locks must be reachable from a seated position. Adjustable showerheads and hand showersAdjustable height hand showers mounted on a vertical bar provide more benefits than a showerhead mounted on a shower wall (see Image #7, below). Hand showers should have at least a 6-foot-long hose. People who need to be seated in order to take a shower have the independence and greater adjustability to position the showerhead on the vertical bar. This bar on many models is constructed so that it also serves as a grab bar. Additional horizontal grab bars will be needed in the shower for safety.Showerheads on hand showers should be lightweight and ergonomic. Ranges in cost may be due to a number of factors including material composition, integrated technology, size, style, functional design, finish, and the life of the warranty.To conserve the amount of water used to take a shower, select a showerhead that is WaterSense labeled. The specification is that the maximum flow rate value of the showerhead must be equal to or less than 2.0 gallons of water per minute. Water is conserved by mixing more air into the water stream. By installing high-efficiency hand showers, the average household could save more than 2,300 gallons of water per year. Since these water savings will reduce demands on water heaters, households will also save on energy costs.
“My concern is (South) Korea,” Reyes said after a 100-85 decision of Japan, which the Filipinos were only able to fend off after a 12-0 run late in the fourth period as Gilas again labored under a bum start at Taipei Peace Basketball Hall here.The Filipinos, after rising to 3-1, battle the Koreans at 5 p.m. on Wednesday, and Reyes would have wanted his men fresher because from there, Gilas takes on Iraq and then Atletas All Stars Lithuania in the next two days.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSWin or don’t eat: the Philippines’ poverty-driven, world-beating pool stars“We needed to rest more guys today and rest them for Korea,” Reyes said. “But we needed to play people extensive minutes (with the game being close). We don’t know how we will compete against Korea. But we will try our best.”The Koreans, who have dealt the Filipinos numerous heartaches in the past, were set to battle the Lithuanians later on Tuesday. After victories over Chinese Taipei B, India and Iran, Korea went into that game still undefeated. Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Reyes pointed out that he used Kiefer Ravena, Matthew Wright and import Mike Myers longer than he had planned.All three finished in twin digits, with Myers completing a double-double with 17 and 17 rebounds and Wright chipping in 15 and Ravena 11. Jio Jalalon also had 11 points and two steals in his finest game yet.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Trump strips away truth with hunky topless photo tweet Bobby Ray Parks will be out for the third straight game for Gilas with a swollen left foot, giving Reyes one less reliable wingman on the floor.The Filipinos were tipped as the heavy favorites against Japan’s Under-24 squad but trailed for most of the game, needing that one telling burst late in the final frame to snuff the fight out of the Japanese and win for the third straight day.“We needed a lot of focus and we weren’t able to execute that in the first half,” said Christian Standhardinger, who is pondering on starting a PBA career when the team planes back home.“We had the urgency in the fourth period and got going on defense,” he added after finishing with 22 points and 15 rebounds which he highlighted by finishing a fastbreak play with a two-handed dunk in that 12-0 run.“In an elite tournament like this, there’s no such thing as an easy game,” Reyes said. “They (Japanese) gave us everything we could handle. In the end, we were fortunate to pull it off.”ADVERTISEMENT Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss PLAY LIST 02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games Hotel says PH coach apologized for ‘kikiam for breakfast’ claim National Coffee Research Development and Extension Center brews the 2nd National Coffee Education Congress Creamline targets 5th straight Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ View comments Ethel Booba on hotel’s clarification that ‘kikiam’ is ‘chicken sausage’: ‘Kung di pa pansinin, baka isipin nila ok lang’ Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netTAIPEI—Chot Reyes played some of his aces more than he thought he should have on Tuesday afternoon against an enemy Gilas Pilipinas could have conquered rather easily.And this is a concern as the Filipinos head into what the firebrand coach said is “the belly of our schedule” in the 39th Jones Cup Invitational here.ADVERTISEMENT Robredo should’ve resigned as drug czar after lack of trust issue – Panelo FEU Auditorium’s 70th year celebrated with FEU Theater Guild’s ‘The Dreamweavers’ LATEST STORIES MOST READ Church, environmentalists ask DENR to revoke ECC of Quezon province coal plant